Monday, November 20, 2017

National Drought Mitigation Center

Drought Headlines Archive

Drought Headlines Archive

General Awareness

Phoenix hasn't seen rain in 85 days — and that's not even its longest dry streak
12News (Phoenix, Ariz.), Nov 17, 2017
Phoenix, Arizona

Phoenix has not received officially measureable rain in 85 days, having last received a few drops on Aug. 23.  Phoenix’s longest dry spell occurred in the first half of 1972 when the city went 160 days without rainfall.

Another wet winter, or more drought? It all starts this weekend in Northern California
The Sacramento Bee, Nov 02, 2017
Northern California

California’s rainy season is ramping up with a storm on the way forecast to drop more than 2 feet of snow in the Sierra.  La Niña conditions may return, potentially yielding a drier winter, particularly in Southern California.

Droughts wipe out enough to feed 81 million people: World Bank
Reuters, Oct 24, 2017

Droughts destroy enough produce to feed 81 million people daily for one year, according to the World Bank.  In addition, drought can inflict generational harms as poverty traps people in difficult circumstances.

New England on Cusp of Drought With Heat and Lack of Rainfall
New England Cable News (Newton, Mass.), Oct 17, 2017
New England

The hot, dry September has steered New England into near-drought conditions that could soon result in increasing fire danger.

Drought continues to ease in Dakotas but is still a big problem
Rapid City Journal (S.D.), Oct 05, 2017
Dakotas

Nearly two-thirds of North and South Dakota remained in drought, down slightly from the previous week.

Agriculture

Break-even year expected for corn despite drought conditions
Mitchell Republic (S.D.), Nov 17, 2017
South Dakota

Despite a droughty growing season in South Dakota, corn farmers were feeling pretty good about their yields.  In early November, the National Agriculture Statistics Service estimated an average of 150 bushels per acre for South Dakota, which is considerably below the estimated national average of 175.4 bpa.

Drought means another tough year for Maine bees
Bangor Daily News (Maine), Nov 17, 2017
Maine

Drought hampered bees’ ability to make honey in parts of Maine, noted a honey dealer and the state apiarist with the Maine Department of Agriculture, but the final production was not known.  The amount was expected to be lower than 2016. 

A Portland beekeeper said that he harvested just 30 pounds of honey from six hives, whereas his harvest two years ago was 225 pounds.  Other beekeepers have had similar drops in production.

Texas Crop and Weather Report
North Texas e-News , Oct 16, 2017
North, east Texas

North Texas pastures were showing signs of stress, with some ranchers beginning to feed hay.  Drought conditions worsened in most East Texas counties. The lack of moisture meant that warm-season grasses continued to lose nutritional value, and dryness hindered the planting of cool-season grasses. Standing forages in hay meadows and pastures began to show drought stress.

Grapes, fruit have great year in N.D.
The Bismarck Tribune (N.D.), Oct 14, 2017
North Dakota

A vintner from the Dickinson area reported that 2017, although a year of drought, was also great for grapes, resulting in a bumper crop.  Chokecherries and apples thrived this summer, as did Canadian blueberries.

Montana drought drives cattle to market early
Billings Gazette (Mont.), Oct 14, 2017
Montana

Since July, more than 40,000 cattle were sold at auction in Miles City and Billings as ranchers tried to cope with parched pastures and lack of grazing for cattle. More than 6,000 head of livestock have moved through stockyards than in 2016 and 11,000 more than in 2015.

Business & Industry

Bankers: Drought Still Burdening Rural Economy in 10 States
U.S. News & World Report, Aug 17, 2017
Plains and Midwest

The overall Rural Mainstreet Index for 10 Plains and Midwestern states rose from July’s 40.7 to 42.2 in August.  Any number below 50 indicates a shrinking economy.  Nearly 58 percent of bankers who participated in the August survey felt that drought conditions were negatively impacting agricultural products in their area.  Surveyors consulted bankers in Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming.

Nestlé Faces Backlash Over Collecting Water From Drought-Stricken Southern California
CBS Los Angeles, May 09, 2017
Southern California

Activists continued to protest Nestlé’s use of springs in southern California as drought and the company’s sourcing of water on public land continues to rile the public.  Of the company’s 40 water sources in the U.S., 11 are in California.  Nestlé captures about 30 million gallons of water annually and pays the U.S. Forest Service just $524 for the permit.

The 102 million dead trees in California's forests are turning tree cutters into millionaires
Los Angeles Times, Dec 14, 2016
California
The southern Sierra Nevada was home to millions of dead trees, needing to be felled and removed for public safety and to reduce the amount of combustible material in the landscape, but the task of removing so many trees was daunting and costly. The Forest Service estimated that there were more than 24 million dead trees in the Fresno and Tulare County portion of the Sierra Nevada alone. Tree cutters, however, see prosperity in the dead trees.
The owner of a tree service said that he charged $1,700 daily for his services. His outfit was one of more than two dozen cutting dead trees along California 168 east of Fresno to Huntington Lake.
Well companies flooded with calls for new wells as drought persists
New Hampshire Union Leader (Manchester), Sep 25, 2016
New Hampshire
The owner of a well-drilling business in Amherst said they had a backlog of three to four weeks, with the phone ringing steadily in the last two weeks and most calls coming from Hillsborough and Rockingham counties. A well driller based in Hudson reported getting quite a few calls from the Kingston area. An Epping well driller was getting calls from Barrington, Brentwood, Durham, Epping, Madbury and Nottingham.
Warm, dry summer a blessing and curse for Maine golf industry
Bangor Daily News (Maine), Aug 29, 2016
Maine
Maine golf courses have benefited from the hot, dry summer because they have had sunny weather and almost no rain days. More irrigation than usual was needed to keep grass green, but golfers appreciate that dry fairways allow the balls to roll further. Overall, golf course operators seemed to like the dry summer and were happy about all of the golfers playing.

Energy

How hydroelectric power has roared back in California
San Francisco Chronicle, Mar 20, 2017
California
The recent years of drought caused a significant lull in hydropower production. Fifteen to 18 percent of California’s electricity generation typically comes from hydropower, but during the drought, hydropower generation dropped to less than 10 percent on average. The state turned to burning natural gas to make up the difference, driving up greenhouse gas emissions by 10 percent over what they would have been. Burning natural gas also cost Californians $2.4 billion more than they would have paid if hydropower production had been near normal.
Ongoing drought taking toll on Alabama Power lake levels
Alabama NewsCenter, Sep 12, 2016
Northern Alabama
The dry summer has depleted lakes used by Alabama Power to generate electricity. Water levels at Weiss, Neely Henry, and Logan Martin lakes on the Coosa River, Harris and Martin lakes on the Tallapoosa River, and Smith Lake on the Black Warrior River were dropping and were expected to continue to drop. Alabama Power reduced water releases from its hydroelectric dams and stopped recreational releases from Jordan Dam on the Coosa River.
Water conservation has saved energy, cut greenhouse gas emissions, study finds
Los Angeles Times, Jun 07, 2016
California
Water conservation in California between June 2015 and February 2016 resulted in energy savings of 922,543 megawatt-hours, which is enough to power 135,000 homes for a year, and also reduced greenhouse gas emissions, found researchers from the University of California-Davis. During that time, Gov. Jerry Brown’s initial emergency conservation program was in effect, requiring all water users to curb their use by 25 percent. Electric utilities and water districts were also ordered to submit reports on their operations, reports that were used by UC Davis to determine the savings.
Easing Drought Boosts California Hydropower, For Now
Climate Central, Jun 01, 2016
California
Spring hydropower generation has reached its highest level since 2011, thanks to near-average snowfall this winter in the Sierra Nevada, helping power production to rebound from the 15-year low reached last year.
Group Claims the Drought is Driving Up California Electric Rates
Power Talk 1360 (Modesto, Calif.), Feb 10, 2016
California
The Pacific Institute has noted a relationship between drought and rising electric rates and produced a report on the topic.

Fire

Drought expands and worsens across the ArkLaTex
KSLA-TV Shreveport News 12 (La.), Oct 12, 2017
ArkLaTex

As drought persisted in the ArkLaTex region, burn bans were in effect for a number of counties.  Some of the affected counties include Columbia, Hempstead and Howard in Arkansas; Caddo, Desoto and Webster in Louisiana; and Cass and Marion in Texas.

22 Arkansas counties impose burn bans as state's wildfire risk increases
Arkansas Online (Little Rock, Ark.), Oct 04, 2017
Arkansas

Dry conditions led to fire restrictions in 22 Arkansas counties.

As leaves pile up, dry conditions force burn ban
WKBN-TV (Youngstown, Ohio), Oct 03, 2017
Ohio

The dry conditions in Ohio prompted the issuance of a statewide burn ban.  Apart from the dry weather, the Ohio Forestry Department considers October and November to be wildfire season in Ohio.

Billions of dead trees force US fire crews to shift tactics
SeattlePI.com, Sep 08, 2017
Western U.S.

Eleven Western states harbor about 6.3 billion dead trees that pose a danger for firefighters battling the dozens of blazes burning in the West.  Bark beetles, drought, disease and fire have killed many of the trees.

More than 1 million acres have burned this summer; state fire fund drained
Helena Independent Record (Mont.), Sep 07, 2017
Montana

The state of Montana spent $53.7 million battling wildfires over the summer, completely emptying a state fire fund that was halved in April, due to legislative action.

Plants & Wildlife

2.4 million trees are dead in Yosemite National Park
San Francisco Chronicle (SFGate.com), Nov 08, 2017
Yosemite National Park, California

The latest fall count found 2.4 million dead trees on about 131,000 acres of Yosemite National Park, said the park spokesman. This is the highest number of dead trees ever recorded in the park and was blamed on persistent drought, warming temperatures, poor forest health and native bark beetles.

Drought may have aided storm that walloped Maine, Northeast
Greenwich Time (Conn.), Nov 01, 2017
Northeast

Drought, recent rainfall and an unusual storm path in Maine may have played a role in the large numbers of trees that fell during a storm that blasted the Northeast.  The dry weather left the trees’ roots in an unhealthy state, while the ground conditions and leaves still on the trees made them more vulnerable to wind damage.

Scientists say few spring-run salmon in Feather River likely due to heat, drought
Chico Enterprise Record (Calif.), Oct 22, 2017
Northern California

Drought and heat were blamed for the poor return of spring-run salmon to the Feather River Fish Hatchery in Oroville, where the low fish count was even worse than predicted.

On brink of pheasant season, South Dakota bracing for drastically reduced bag
Minneapolis-St. Paul Star Tribune, Oct 19, 2017
South Dakota

The previous harsh winter and parched summer has cut down the pheasant population in parts of South Dakota to about one-third of the ten-year average.  There is concern that poor pheasant counts will draw fewer nonresidents for the hunt, depriving South Dakota of millions in economic activity.

FWP expects local fishery to recover
Havre Daily News (Mont.), Oct 13, 2017
Near Havre, Montana

The summer of heat and drought dropped water levels and hurt fish populations in Fresno Reservoir, Bear Paw Lake and Beaver Creek Reservoir near Havre.  Recent surveys showed the population of forage fish—young perch, crappie and shiner—in Fresno Reservoir was diminished by drought.  Fresno Reservoir dropped to a low of 13 percent of capacity in mid-August, according to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, but the reservoir has since rebounded to 48.3 percent on Oct. 12.

Relief, Response, & Restrictions

Senator calls for more USDA workers to respond to drought
The Bismarck Tribune (N.D.), Oct 20, 2017
Western North Dakota

U.S. Sen. Heidi Heitkamp called on the U.S. Department of Agriculture to supply more workers to western North Dakota, where understaffed Farm Service Agency offices were facing a crushing workload after a summer of exceptional drought.

It’s rained a lot, but there’s a moderate drought in Wake, surrounding counties.
Raleigh News & Observer (N.C.), Oct 19, 2017
North Carolina

The North Carolina Drought Management Advisory Council issued a moderate drought advisory for a dozen counties in the northern Piedmont.  The area typically receives 35 to 40 inches of rain by this time, but has only gotten 25 to 30 inches this year.

Drought watch declared throughout Shenandoah Valley
WHSV-TV (Harrisonburg, Va.), Oct 11, 2017
Virginia

The Virginia Department of Environmental Quality issued a drought watch for the Shenandoah Valley and the Middle James and Roanoke River regions. The drought watch is intended to raise public awareness of conditions, which could lead to significant drought events.

FEMA says no to presidential declaration on drought
The Bismarck Tribune (N.D.), Oct 09, 2017
North Dakota

North Dakota was denied a presidential major disaster declaration because it was “not appropriate” for the drought, according to Federal Emergency Management Agency Administrator Brock Long.  There are federal programs and other sources for drought relief available to the state.

With no real rain for weeks, town of Orange enacts water restrictions
Culpeper Star-Exponent (Culpeper, Va.), Oct 05, 2017
Virginia

A drought watch advisory was issued for the Northern Piedmont of Virginia, including Culpeper, Greene, Louisa, Madison, Orange, Rappahannock, Spotsylvania and Stafford counties. The Virginia Department of Environmental Quality issued the advisory because the region received 83 percent of normal precipitation between Oct. 1, 2016 and Sept. 15, 2017.

Society & Public Health

North Dakota drought delays reclamation of Cold War site
The Bismarck Tribune (N.D.), Nov 15, 2017
North Dakota

Drought and an inability to get grass growing at the site of a Cold War-era base in Divide County has prevented the full reclamation of the Fortuna Air Force Station. Grass must be seeded on an inert waste disposal pit, but a contractor’s seeding in July did not survive. County workers have since reseeded the area.

The base in northwestern Divide County was activated in 1952 as a radar facility during the Cold War. Before partial deactivation in 1979, Fortuna AFS had long-range and height-finder radar, data and backup systems. The site was decommissioned and abandoned in 1984.

More ink, less water: News coverage of the drought prompted Californians to conserve, study suggests
Los Angeles Times, Oct 27, 2017
California

The more news coverage of California’s drought, the more Californians conserved, according to research by Stanford University.

Here’s California’s plan to save motorists from toppling trees at Tahoe
The Sacramento Bee, Aug 22, 2017
Lake Tahoe area, California

California crews plan to cut down dead and drought-weakened trees along highways in the Tahoe Basin starting in September as part of the statewide movement to remove dangerous trees along highways.  Efforts will be focused on Highway 89, where a tree fell and killed a woman in her car, and other area highways.  Caltrans has already taken out more than 100,000 dead trees in the Golden State, mostly on state property along highways as part of a $115 million safety campaign.  Removing dangerous trees on private property will be the next step.  Caltrans identified Amador, Calaveras, El Dorado, Fresno, Kern, Madera, Mariposa, Placer, Tulare and Tuolumne counties as areas of particularly high risk for falling trees.

Hold the Bagel! Higher Costs Make 2018 a Great Time to Cut Carbs
The Washington Post with Bloomberg, Jul 26, 2017
U.S.

Benchmark wheat futures in Chicago remained 18 percent higher for the year, due to drought, and will likely mean costlier bagels and pizza crusts in 2018.  In Minneapolis, the price for spring wheat was up 37 percent for the year. 

Four water main breaks in four days
Osceola Sentinel-Tribune (Iowa), Jul 20, 2017
Osceola, Iowa

The hot, dry weather has caused soils to shift in south central Iowa, leading to four water main breaks in four days, stated Osceola Water Works Superintendent Brandon Patterson.

Tourism & Recreation

Corn Palace murals nearly complete after delay from drought
KSFY-TV ABC 13 Sioux Falls (S.D.), Nov 08, 2017
South Dakota

Drought slowed the delivery of corn for the Corn Palace murals in Mitchell, putting the decorators about a week behind schedule. Drought threatened the corn during the summer, but eventually rain did fall and salvage the crop.

Big game season going well, bird population affected by drought
Havre Daily News (Mont.), Nov 03, 2017
Near Havre, Montana

Drought reduced pheasant, grouse and Hungarian partridge harvest counts to about 50 percent across the board, according to Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks Havre-area biologist Scott Hemmer. Pheasants were down 47 percent in the long-term, sharp-tailed grouse were down 58 percent, while Hungarian pheasants were down 52 percent. He felt that the drought conditions hurt the survival of the young birds.

Pheasant numbers suffer from Montana drought
Ravalli Republic (Mont.), Oct 03, 2017
Eastern Montana

Pheasant habitat in eastern Montana was severely affected by drought, which lowered brood success.   The final results of the brood survey have not been published, but the brood count was down significantly.

Drought affects duck hunting wetlands in the Northern Plains
Minneapolis-St. Paul Star Tribune, Sep 22, 2017
Northern Plains

Drought decreased the number of duck-hunting wetlands in North Dakota by about 40 percent, compared to 2016, found the Game and Fish Department from their annual fall wetland survey.

Hunters warned: Some Block Management Areas closed due to fire danger
Billings Gazette (Mont.), Aug 28, 2017
Montana

Some Montana landowners closed their property to hunting, due to the drought and elevated fire danger. Six Block Management Areas in northeast Montana were indefinitely closed, with restricted access to walk-in hunting only in one area and a delayed opening of another area. The affected BMAs were in Blaine, Choteau, Hill, McCone and Phillips counties. The upland bird season opens on Sept. 1 and most archery seasons open on Sept. 2.

Water Supply & Quality

Water restrictions soon could be lifted
Charlottesville Daily Progress (Va.), Nov 14, 2017
Albemarle County, Charlottesville, Virginia

Since the South Fork Rivanna Reservoir reached capacity on Nov. 1 and stayed full for two weeks, the Rivanna Water & Sewer Authority felt that the water restrictions for Albemarle County and Charlottesville were no longer needed. Mandatory restrictions in Albemarle County could end as soon as Nov. 17 and in Charlottesville as early as Nov. 21.

Napa approves five years of rate hikes for city water
Napa Valley Register (Calif.), Nov 08, 2017
Napa, California

The Napa City Council approved higher water rates to compensate for reduced water sales and revenue after years of drought.  Revenue from water sales dropped from $27 million in the 2013-14 fiscal year to $22.2 million in 2016-17, $6.7 million less than the city predicted as the state endured drought and water conservation mandates.

CT Aquarion customers told to reduce water usage
WFSB-TV CBS Channel 3 (Hartford, Conn.), Oct 18, 2017
Greenwich, Connecticut

Aquarion Water Company asked its water customers in Darien, Greenwich, New Canaan and Stamford to turn off their irrigation systems and sprinklers for the year, due to developing drought.  The Greenwich reservoir system was at 48 percent of capacity, below the average of 67 percent, and the Stamford reservoir system was at 61 percent, slightly below its average of 71 percent.  The low reservoir levels were due to the lack of rainfall and increased irrigation while the weather remained unseasonably warm.

ACSA Declares Water Emergency Due to Drought
WVIR-TV NBC29 (Charlottesville, Va.), Oct 09, 2017
Albemarle County, Virginia

The Albemarle County Service Authority Board of Directors declared a water emergency, due to the drought, on Oct. 9. Mandatory water restrictions will soon take effect. The Albemarle County Board of Supervisors was requested to approve the declaration of emergency during their board meeting on Oct. 11.

The Rivanna Water and Sewer Authority previously declared a drought warning stage and drought emergency.

Officials Place Charlottesville Area Under Drought Warning
WVIR-TV NBC29 (Charlottesville, Va.), Oct 05, 2017
Charlottesville, Virginia

The Rivanna Water and Sewer Authority declared a drought warning for the Charlottesville-Albemarle County area because the water level of the South Fork Rivanna Reservoir continued to fall.

International

Dry weather stalls 2017/18 Argentine soy planting –analysts
Successful Farming, Nov 13, 2017
Argentina

Unusually low November rainfall in Argentina has soybean planting on hold and has farmers worried about their crops.

Italy's white truffles feel the heat at Alba auction
Reuters, Nov 12, 2017
Italy

Climate change, drought and severe storms have reduced truffle production in Italy, where there has been a 30 percent decrease in truffle production over the past 25 years.

UN Food Agency Chief Plans to Visit North Korea Amid Drought
The New York Times, Nov 07, 2017
North Korea

As drought and hunger affect North Korea, the head of the U.N. World Food Program intends to visit the country to make sure assistance is being received where it is needed and that children are not starving.  Many North Koreans suffer chronic malnutrition because their diets lack the needed vitamins, minerals, proteins and fats.

South Africa's wheat imports to nearly double due to drought
World-Grain.com (Kansas City, Mo.), Nov 06, 2017
South Africa

South Africa was expected to almost double its wheat imports to 1.9 million tons in the 2017-18 market year due to drought damage in a major wheat-producing part of the country.

In Israel, searching for droughts past and future
Phys.Org, Nov 02, 2017
Israel

Droughts far worse than those seen in modern times have affected Israel in the past, with precipitation falling to just a fifth of what is normal today.  With climate change predicted to bring warmer temperatures, precipitation is expected to decline rapidly in the region in coming years.

Research

Changes in water consumption linked to heavy news media coverage of extreme climatic events
Science Advances, Oct 25, 2017
California

Greater media coverage of drought in California resulted in greater water conservation in the San Francisco Bay area.

NAU Study: Fungi Helps Pinyon Pines Survive Drought
KNAU (Flagstaff, Ariz.), Oct 18, 2017
Arizona

Certain species of fungi helped trees pull water and nutrients from the soil, allowing the trees to be more drought-resistant.

Researchers map wells across the West and estimate 1 out of every 30 has gone dry
Palm Springs Desert Sun (Calif.), Sep 29, 2017
Western U.S.

Of the roughly 2 million wells in 17 western states from Texas to Oregon, an estimated one in 30 was dry between 2013 and 2015, found researchers from Stanford University and the University of Calgary.

Kansas well owners, non-well owners have different watering routines during droughts, study finds
The University of Kansas , Aug 15, 2017
Kansas

Well ownership was found to be tied to increased watering during droughts and that water conservation varied among those owning different types of wells, found Brock Ternes, a KU lecturer and doctoral graduate of sociology.

Study Finds Drought Recoveries Taking Longer
NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology, Aug 14, 2017

A NASA study found that land ecosystems took progressively longer to get over drought in the 20th century and partial drought recovery may become the new normal in some places, possibly contributing to tree deaths and more greenhouse gas emissions.

Mitigation

California growers, researchers preparing for next drought
Capital Press - Agriculture Weekly (Salem, Ore.), May 18, 2017
California

Growers and researchers were working fervently to find ways to help California’s orchards, vineyards and row crops withstand the next drought with as little water as they can manage and yet thrive.  Subsurface drip irrigation, minimizing soil disturbance, leaving crop residue, diversifying crop rotations and using cover crops are some of the strategies for improving moisture retention and drought tolerance.

Will replacing thirsty lawns with drought-tolerant plants make L.A. hotter?
Los Angeles Times, Aug 02, 2016
California
If every lawn in Los Angeles were replaced with drought-tolerant vegetation, researchers from the University of Southern California found that the city’s overall temperature in July would increase up to 3.4 degrees during the day and decrease by about 5.4 degrees cooler during the night. The lower soil moisture changes the thermal properties of the soil.
San Luis Valley aquifer refills after years of drought, overuse
Santa Fe New Mexican, Jun 11, 2016
San Luis Valley in southern Colorado
A multiyear drought that began in 2002 in the San Luis Valley in southern Colorado quickly drew down the region’s streams and water table, causing wells to go dry abruptly. The Rio Grande Water Conservation District and San Luis Valley water users created a subdistrict project to address the water problem of over appropriation and help the region to balance its water use. Farmers and ranchers paid $75 per acre-foot of groundwater they pumped, but also were compensated for fallowing parts of their fields, limiting water demand.
In the four years since the subdistrict project began in 2012, the aquifer is recovering. One-third less groundwater water being pumped than before the project, from more than 320,000 acre-feet prior to 2012 to about 200,000 acre-feet. Ten thousand acres that previously were used to cultivate thirsty alfalfa and potato crops were fallow. Stewards of the land continue to improve soil quality and were striving to grow more efficient crops as other ways to help the aquifer.
Central America tests drought-resistant 'miracle' beans
ReliefWeb, Dec 01, 2015
El Salvador
A hybrid light red bean created through traditional cross-breeding grows well despite little moisture and is resistant to bean golden yellow mosaic virus.
This machine can make salty water drinkable — using only the sun’s rays
The Washington Post, May 06, 2015

A group of people from Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed a novel method of purifying brackish, undrinkable water via a solar-powered water desalination system. The water produced by the system is free of contaminants and is potable.
Drought Headlines Archive

The National Drought Mitigation Center | University of Nebraska-Lincoln
3310 Holdrege Street | P.O. Box 830988 | Lincoln, NE 68583–0988
phone: (402) 472–6707 | fax: (402) 472–2946 | Contact Us | Web Policy

University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Copyright 2017 National Drought Mitigation Center