Friday, December 02, 2016

National Drought Mitigation Center

Drought Headlines Archive

Drought Headlines Archive

General Awareness

Moderate drought declared for most of the District and surroundings
The Washington Post, Nov 17, 2016
Washington D.C.

Washington D.C. has received little rain since the start of October and was partially in moderate drought.  County agricultural officials in Virginia reported that while the dry weather was beneficial for the harvest, hay and pasture lands were stressed by the lack of rain.

East central Alabama drought officially reaches record territory
Anniston Star (Ala.), Nov 10, 2016
Birmingham, Alabama
As of Nov. 10, Birmingham had gone 53 days without measurable rainfall, breaking the previous record dry streak of 52 days set in 1924.
La Niña arrives in the Pacific, will impact winter weather
Gant Daily (Clearfield, Pa.), Nov 10, 2016
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration announced that La Niña had arrived in the Pacific Ocean and should persist through the winter. La Niña will likely bring drier, warmer weather to the southern US and wetter, cooler conditions to the Pacific Northwest and the northern tier of the nation this winter.
California's drought divide _ rainy north, dry south
The Associated Press, Nov 04, 2016
Northern California received heavy rains in October, leading to one-quarter of the state escaping drought. Water officials, however, point out that three-fourths of the state remained in the five-year drought.
NM nearly free of drought, but not for much longer
ABQJournal Online (N.M.), Oct 27, 2016
New Mexico
The extremely dry October that New Mexico endured will certainly bring drought conditions back into the state, determined the New Mexico Drought Monitoring Workgroup when they met on Oct. 27.


Wheat feeling the stress
Woodward News (Okla.), Dec 01, 2016
Woodward County in northwestern Oklahoma
Oklahoma’s wheat crops were struggling from lack of moisture, said Dana Bay with the Woodward County OSU Extension Service Horticulture and Landscape. In the last 30 days, the county and surrounding areas received less than half an inch of rain. The state’s biggest agricultural commodity is wheat grown for forage, leaving cattle producers anxious about the developing drought.
Region's drought hits 86% of state (Little Rock, Ark.), Nov 12, 2016
Many Arkansas livestock producers were out of grass as grazing exhausted pastures and little rain fell to encourage grass growth. The lack of rain also led 15 county judges to issue burn bans that prohibit the outdoor burning of trash, brush and all other debris.
Jackson County Farmers Experience Drought
WMBB TV (Panama City, Fla.), Nov 08, 2016
Jackson County, Florida
A dearth of rainfall for the past 45 days has cattle producers behind in their winter grazing planting schedule. Farmers can purchase extra feed or irrigate to grow grass, but most of the land in Jackson County was not irrigated.
Fall dry spell follows record summer rainfall in Southeast Texas
Beaumont Enterprise (Texas), Nov 07, 2016
Eastern Texas
East Texas ranchers were planning carefully before rotating their cattle to preserve grass in fields where it was growing slower. Some ranchers were feeding cattle hay sooner than they would normally do, according to Jefferson County AgriLife Extension Agent Allen Homann. Dryness in the fall could also hamper grass production in the spring.
Soybeans Shattering in Fields Throughout Alabama
Growing Alabama (Birmingham), Nov 04, 2016
Soybean growers statewide have reported that soybean pods were shattering. Soybean pod shattering occurs as a result of hot and windy conditions and low humidity combining to dry the pod walls until they become brittle and break.

Business & Industry

Well companies flooded with calls for new wells as drought persists
New Hampshire Union Leader (Manchester), Sep 25, 2016
New Hampshire
The owner of a well-drilling business in Amherst said they had a backlog of three to four weeks, with the phone ringing steadily in the last two weeks and most calls coming from Hillsborough and Rockingham counties. A well driller based in Hudson reported getting quite a few calls from the Kingston area. An Epping well driller was getting calls from Barrington, Brentwood, Durham, Epping, Madbury and Nottingham.
Warm, dry summer a blessing and curse for Maine golf industry
Bangor Daily News (Maine), Aug 29, 2016
Maine golf courses have benefited from the hot, dry summer because they have had sunny weather and almost no rain days. More irrigation than usual was needed to keep grass green, but golfers appreciate that dry fairways allow the balls to roll further. Overall, golf course operators seemed to like the dry summer and were happy about all of the golfers playing.
Summer drought taking toll on lawn care companies (New York), Aug 01, 2016
Rochester, New York
A Rochester lawn care business owner said he’s losing $2,500 to $3,000 weekly because grass was dormant and did not need to be mowed.
Barge traffic makes a resurgence on the Missouri River
St. Louis Post-Dispatch, May 30, 2016
Missouri River
Drought was among a number of factors leading shippers to abandon the Missouri River as a transportation corridor as public ports from Sioux City, Iowa to St. Louis disappeared during the late 1990s and early 2000s. Increasingly, grain, scrap metal, fertilizer and other commodities were again being moved by barge.
California craft beer brewers balance drafts and drought
Redding Record Searchlight (Calif.), Oct 11, 2015
As California communities strive to meet their water conservation goals, those communities also ask businesses, including craft beer brewers, to slash water use. While larger breweries might have the capital to increase water use efficiency, smaller ones in many cases do not.


Ongoing drought taking toll on Alabama Power lake levels
Alabama NewsCenter, Sep 12, 2016
Northern Alabama
The dry summer has depleted lakes used by Alabama Power to generate electricity. Water levels at Weiss, Neely Henry, and Logan Martin lakes on the Coosa River, Harris and Martin lakes on the Tallapoosa River, and Smith Lake on the Black Warrior River were dropping and were expected to continue to drop. Alabama Power reduced water releases from its hydroelectric dams and stopped recreational releases from Jordan Dam on the Coosa River.
Water conservation has saved energy, cut greenhouse gas emissions, study finds
Los Angeles Times, Jun 07, 2016
Water conservation in California between June 2015 and February 2016 resulted in energy savings of 922,543 megawatt-hours, which is enough to power 135,000 homes for a year, and also reduced greenhouse gas emissions, found researchers from the University of California-Davis. During that time, Gov. Jerry Brown’s initial emergency conservation program was in effect, requiring all water users to curb their use by 25 percent. Electric utilities and water districts were also ordered to submit reports on their operations, reports that were used by UC Davis to determine the savings.
Easing Drought Boosts California Hydropower, For Now
Climate Central, Jun 01, 2016
Spring hydropower generation has reached its highest level since 2011, thanks to near-average snowfall this winter in the Sierra Nevada, helping power production to rebound from the 15-year low reached last year.
Group Claims the Drought is Driving Up California Electric Rates
Power Talk 1360 (Modesto, Calif.), Feb 10, 2016
The Pacific Institute has noted a relationship between drought and rising electric rates and produced a report on the topic.
In Parched California, a Farmer’s Market Is Emerging for Power
The Washington Post with Bloomberg, Sep 03, 2015
California farmers were pumping more water for crop irrigation amid a fourth year of drought and were using hundreds of millions of dollars more electricity than normal to power the pumps. In the Central Valley, farmers may use groundwater to meet more than 60 percent of their irrigation needs in 2015, one-third more than a normal year, At that rate, electric bills would rise 77 percent, or $600 million, compared to a year with normal precipitation.


This is how the devastating Gatlinburg wildfire erupted overnight
The Washington Post, Nov 29, 2016
Gatlinburg, Tennessee
About 14,000 people in the Gatlinburg area fled just ahead of the wind-whipped flames, which consumed hundreds of structures. The dry fall left the Southeast parched and ready to burn, as evidenced by wildfires burning in the Great Smoky Mountains in past months. A storm system moving through the region on the evening of Nov. 28 brought strong winds, which brought down trees and power lines and sparked new fires.
Forestry says it will need more money
Times Daily (Florence, Ala.), Nov 23, 2016
As wildfires continued to burn in Alabama, the Forestry Commission has already fought more than 1,900 wildfires that charred 22,750 acres in the first two months of the 2017 fiscal year, which is more than burned in all of 2016. The agency may need more funds on top of the more than $1.1 million already spent to keep battling blazes if dry weather persists. February and March are typically the height of the fire season.
Southeast Fires Update: At Least 2 Dead as More Than 30 Large Blazes Continue to Burn
The Weather Channel (Atlanta), Nov 20, 2016
Southeastern U.S.

More than 30 large fires continued burning uncontained and have consumed 100,000 acres.  More than 200 patients were admitted in Chattanooga, Tennessee since last Friday for respiratory distress as the thick smoky haze caused air quality alerts for parts of the region.

WNC wildfire season unprecedented, no end in sight
Asheville Citizen-Times (N.C.), Nov 17, 2016
Western North Carolina
Autumn 2016 has been Western North Carolina’s driest in 104 years and has not brought significant rainfall in 80 days. Flames have consumed about 47,000 acres and demonstrated unusual fire behavior.
"A typical Western North Carolina wildland fire only burns the leaf litter and debris on the ground,” said Mills River Fire Chief Rick Livingston. “With this (Party Rock) fire in a lot of cases what we’ve seen is a total burn of the bushes, trees and everything in its path has been consumed by fire which is unusual in Western North Carolina."
Brush Fire in Cornwall, Warren Is Largest in Recent History
WVIT NBC Connecticut (West Hartford, Conn.), Nov 14, 2016
A brush fire in the Wyantenock State Forest in Cornwall blackened about 250 acres since it began from lightning strikes in mid-September, according to Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection.

Plants & Wildlife

Conservationists Mount Rescue of Endangered Laurel Dace Imperiled By Historic Drought
The Tennessee Aquarium (Chattanooga), Nov 28, 2016
Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee
The few creeks and tributaries on the Cumberland Plateau have run nearly dry, further threatening the federally endangered Laurel Dace. After watching water levels dwindle, staff from the Tennessee Aquarium Conservation Institute and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife rescued as many of the minnows as they could collect on Nov. 22, which wasn’t many. Just 18 Laurel Dace were found.
102 million dead California trees 'unprecedented in our modern history,' officials say
Los Angeles Times, Nov 18, 2016
Another 36 million trees have died in California’s parched forests, bringing the total to more than 102 million dead trees, according to the results of an aerial survey released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The tree die-off was worst in the south and central Sierra Nevada range.
Drought prompts Tennessee Aquarium to launch rescue of endangered Barrens Topminnows
WTVC NewsChannel9 (Chattanooga, Tenn.), Nov 03, 2016
Eastern Tennessee
Sixty-four Barrens Topminnows were salvaged from a Middle Tennessee stream to be housed at the Tennessee Aquarium Conservation Institute near downtown Chattanooga.
In eastern Tennessee in the Cherokee National Forest, native Southern Appalachian Brook Trout were moving to deeper pools as the forests’ streams become shallower, slower and warmer.
Drought also triggered a mass die-off of mussels in the Clinch River system of northeastern Tennessee and southwest Virginia because water levels have become very shallow in comparison with wetter months.
Drought brings on pine beetle infestation
WALB-TV NBC 10 Albany (Ga.), Nov 02, 2016
Southwestern Georgia
Ips engraver beetles were drawn to drought-stressed pine trees in southwestern Georgia, said Georgia Forestry Commission Rangers, who were monitoring pine trees daily. The beetles attack and kill drought-stressed and weakened pine trees.
There are signs of ‘drought stress’ in Vermont
Burlington Free Press (Vt.), Oct 01, 2016
Vermont, New Hampshire
Drought in Vermont led to leaf browning and early color in some trees across the state. Josh Halman, a forest health specialist, and Dan Dillner, a protection forester with the Vermont Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation noted the changes when they surveyed the state’s forests from airplanes over the summer. Increased bear-human conflicts were another issue stemming from the drought as fewer wild blueberries and raspberries existed in the wild for bears to eat, according to Andrew Timmons, bear project leader for the New Hampshire Fish and Game Department. Bears roam further searching for food during such years.

Relief, Response, & Restrictions

California's new water conservation plan focuses on cities
The Sacramento Bee, Dec 01, 2016
California state water officials worked on a new conservation plan featuring the creation of customized water-use limits for urban water districts and a focus on fixing leaks, which can drain more than 10 percent of processed water. Towns and cities will also be required to create five-year drought contingency plans rather than the three-year plans they presently have. Critics complain that the agricultural sector was not asked to conserve.
Governor raises drought designations; prompting restrictions
WALB (Albany, Ga.), Nov 17, 2016
Gov. Nathan Deal declared 52 counties in northern Georgia to be in Level II Drought Response and, in agreement with the Environmental Protection Division, saw 58 counties in the southern part of the state to be in Level I Drought Response.
12 more counties are under drought emergency status
Times Daily (Florence, Ala.), Nov 15, 2016

Twelve additional Alabama counties entered drought emergency status as drought diminished water supplies in Choctaw, Clarke, Dallas, Marengo, Monroe, Washington, Wilcox, Butler, Conecuh, Covington, Crenshaw and Escambia counties in the southwestern part of the state. As of mid-November, most of Alabama was in emergency drought status.

TEMA declares state of emergency over drought in Tennessee
Nashville Tennessean, Nov 11, 2016
The Tennessee Emergency Management Agency declared a state of emergency, due to continued drought and wildfire threat. Drought has affected more than 300 water systems statewide, allowed wildfires to scorch 6,000 acres and appeared to be holding on through the remainder of 2016.
Level I drought declared in 117 Kentucky counties
The Lane Report (Lexington, Ky.), Nov 10, 2016
A Level I drought declaration was made for 117 counties in Kentucky, as determined by the Office of the State Climatologist and the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet, in coordination with the Kentucky Drought Mitigation Team. A Level I drought means moderate to severe drought conditions have developed, mainly affecting soil moisture and vegetative health. More wildfires and adverse impacts to agricultural water needs and public water supplies were likely if drought conditions persist.

Society & Public Health

Drought causes damage on North Mississippi highways
WMC-TV Action News5 Memphis (Tenn.), Nov 28, 2016
Northern Mississippi
Drought has caused pavement to crumble in northern Mississippi, according to the state Department of Transportation. Large cracks have developed in the asphalt, particularly due to Yazoo clay, which can expand to fill 400 percent more space when it is wet, and, conversely shrink when it’s dry. Trees near roadways can also exacerbate problems by drawing out moisture from the Yazoo clay.
Drought Impact on Mississippi
WTVA (Tupelo, Miss.), Oct 31, 2016
Some Mississippi homes exhibited foundation and wall cracks as drought shifts the state’s soils. Homeowners were urged to wait for rain to see if the cracks close once moisture returns.
Drought causing county road problems
The Dispatch (Columbus, Miss.), Oct 25, 2016
Lowndes County, Mississippi
Drought has left big cracks in Lowndes County’s paved and gravel roads as the soil shifts when it dries. The county road manager stated that it has already cost the county about $60,000 to repair roads in the last four to six weeks. The paving machine is used as much as possible for the fixes, but sometimes crews must patch the roads by hand.
Extreme drought causes home foundation cracks across the Valley
WHNT 19 (Huntsville, Ala.), Oct 12, 2016
Northern Alabama
Many home foundation repair businesses in northern Alabama were busy because dry conditions have caused large cracks and damage to many home foundations. One repair business bought more trucks to keep up with demand for service, although home owners must wait up to three weeks before someone can inspect their homes.
NH drought sufferers resort to water shaming on social media
New Hampshire Union Leader (Manchester), Sep 28, 2016
Southern New Hampshire
Many southern New Hampshire residents were airing their frustrations on Facebook about neighbors watering lawns amid the drought. Plaistow, Fremont and Kingston were a few of the communities with active social media users.

Tourism & Recreation

Several boat ramps at The Rez closing due to drought conditions
WJTV-TV CBS 12 (Jackson, Miss.), Nov 10, 2016
Barnett Reservoir, Jackson, Mississippi
Several boat ramps at Barnett Reservoir were closed as drought lowered the water level. Some of the ramp closures included Fannin Landing in Rankin County, Brown’s Landing in Madison County and five subdivision ramps.
Drought edges in on outdoor businesses
BlueRidgeNow (Hendersonville, N.C.), Nov 03, 2016
Western North Carolina
Outfitters in western North Carolina have seen slightly fewer customers and have taken fewer people on guided and rafting trips. Fishing was extremely difficult with water levels being so low, said a store manager in Asheville.
Lake Lanier levels drop, other concerns rise
Gainesville Times (Ga.), Oct 23, 2016
Lake Lanier, Georgia
Lake Lanier Association members were warned to move their docks because the level of the lake was down eight feet. Twenty-two boat ramps on the lake were closed, due to low water.
Snowmobile festival trucks in water because of drought
WMUR-TV (Manchester, N.H.), Oct 05, 2016
Fremont, New Hampshire
Water was trucked to Fremont to prepare for Race to Winter, an annual kickoff to winter event, featuring numerous snowmobile races. The water was used to refill three dry swales that normally were replenished by brooks, but, due to drought, were rather dry. The water in the swales cools the snowmobiles' suspension, keeping them from overheating and allowing the snowmobiles to perform stunts.
Blue skies equal a green summer for paddle rentals
New London Day (Conn.), Sep 25, 2016
Connecticut’s hot, droughty summer was great for kayak, canoe and paddleboard rentals and also led to brisker sales than usual of outdoor gear. An outfitter in Mystic said that his season was twice as good as 2015 and that paddleboards were hugely popular. Business for an outfitter in North Cornwall was rather mixed, being very, very slow for river trips, with drought dropping river levels, but lake rentals at state parks has been very, very busy, due to the dry weather.

Water Supply & Quality

Drought watch issued for entire Delaware River Basin
The Times Herald (Norristown, Pa.), Nov 25, 2016
Eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey
The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection issued a drought watch for the entire Delaware River Basin as the lack of rain continued to take a toll on water supplies. The DEP previously declared drought watches in 26 eastern Pennsylvania counties and drought warnings for six counties. Rainfall has been 75 percent below normal in eastern Pennsylvania in the last 90 days.
New Britain To Begin Buying Water Due To Drought
CBS Connecticut (West Hartford, Conn.), Nov 17, 2016
New Britain, Connecticut
The city of New Britain will begin purchasing water from the Metropolitan District Commission on Dec. 1. The city will buy six and a half million gallons of water daily through the end of December to allow its water supply a chance to recover.
N.J. drinking water supplies continue to shrink as drought woes continue (Newark, N.J.), Nov 17, 2016
New Jersey
Twelve reservoirs in northern New Jersey were collectively hovering around 52 percent of capacity, although their typical storage is about 68 percent in mid-November. A spokesman for the Department of Environmental Protection recommended that the public conserve.
Conservation urged as Quabbin Reservoir dips ‘below normal’ (Mass.), Nov 16, 2016
Greater Boston, Mass.
Below normal water levels in the Quabbin Reservoir prompted Massachusetts officials to urge residents of greater Boston to conserve water. On Nov. 15, the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority announced that the Quabbin Reservoir held less than 80 percent of capacity. The 39-square mile Quabbin holds 412 billion gallons of water when at capacity.
Officials weigh emergency action to repel salt front in Delaware River
State Impact Pennsylvania (Harrisburg, Pa.), Nov 15, 2016
Delaware River in Pennsylvania, New Jersey
Delaware River Basin officials were thinking about emergency measures to keep the salt front from encroaching further up the river. Water was already being released from two Pennsylvania reservoirs to keep the salty water away from municipal water intakes in Philadelphia and New Jersey.


Early drought warning helps Pakistan's farmers prepare for dry season
Reuters, Dec 02, 2016
The Pakistan Meteorological Department issued a warning in late October that no rain was expected during November and December in parts of northern Pakistan. This allowed farmers who rely on rain for irrigation to plant different crops to withstand the dry spell and grow a less water-intensive crop.
Mining projects, big plantations mean Bolivia's drought hurts more: campaigners
Reuters, Nov 28, 2016
Bolivia’s worst drought in 25 years has been more challenging due to big population growth in cities, poor infrastructure and the water needs of large agricultural plantations and mines. A national state of emergency was declared in Bolivia last week as drought devastated crop harvests and cattle herds.
New drought looming in southeastern Ethiopia – likely to affect millions of livestock owners
ReliefWeb, Nov 15, 2016
Even before Ethiopia could recover from the worst drought the country has endured in the past 50 years, another drought was on the horizon in the southeastern part of the country. Nearly 10 percent of the livestock population in Oromia, the country’s largest region, urgently need animal feed and other support.
Somalia Appeals for Drought Assistance After Failed Rains
Bloomberg, Nov 14, 2016
Somali President Hassan Sheik Mohamud appealed for aid and said his people desperately needed food and water after insufficient rain fell, affecting North Western and North Eastern regions of Somalia, Somaliland and Puntland the most. About 5 million Somalis were seeing food shortages and more than 350,000 children were severely malnourished, reported the United Nations in September.
South Africa's wild game breeders count mounting costs of drought
Reuters, Nov 11, 2016
South Africa
Dry pastures and expensive supplements have specialist game ranchers in South Africa in a tight spot, with game prices down when ranchers need to cut herd numbers.


US Southwest faces threat of megadroughts with rising temps
U.S. News & World Report, Oct 05, 2016
Southwestern U.S.
The U.S. Southwest will likely face megadroughts in the future as climate change brings rising temperatures. Those megadroughts will be hotter and more severe, straining water resources, said researchers from Cornell University.
A&M researcher brings the dream to the Texas cotton patch
The Eagle (Bryan-College Station, Texas), Aug 29, 2016

An endophyte microbial coating of the planting seed can, under some conditions, boost the cotton yield by up to 10 percent, discovered researcher Greg Sword, an entomologist with Texas A&M. Nothing else is needed to achieve the production increase—not specialized farming equipment, no GMO technology, etc. Some of the endophytes can reduce pest pressure on cotton, as well as confer water stress resistance.
Rainfall following drought linked to historic nitrate levels in Midwest streams in 2013, Jun 07, 2016

Periods of drought followed by rainfall caused nitrate levels to spike in some Midwest streams during a 2013 study, according to a U.S. Geological Survey report published in the Journal of Environmental Quality.

Plants remember stress to help protect themselves, Jun 01, 2016

Research from the University of Warwick in the U.K. revealed that plants have evolved ways to remember previous exposures to stress, such as high salinity conditions, which can help subsequent progenies withstand the same stress in future.
Researchers identify critical factors that determine drought vulnerability of wheat, maize
Science Daily (Rockville, Md.), May 26, 2016

Researchers from the School of Science at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis identified critical information about the environmental variables and agronomic factors that determine the vulnerability of maize and wheat production to drought.


Will replacing thirsty lawns with drought-tolerant plants make L.A. hotter?
Los Angeles Times, Aug 02, 2016
If every lawn in Los Angeles were replaced with drought-tolerant vegetation, researchers from the University of Southern California found that the city’s overall temperature in July would increase up to 3.4 degrees during the day and decrease by about 5.4 degrees cooler during the night. The lower soil moisture changes the thermal properties of the soil.
San Luis Valley aquifer refills after years of drought, overuse
Santa Fe New Mexican, Jun 11, 2016
San Luis Valley in southern Colorado
A multiyear drought that began in 2002 in the San Luis Valley in southern Colorado quickly drew down the region’s streams and water table, causing wells to go dry abruptly. The Rio Grande Water Conservation District and San Luis Valley water users created a subdistrict project to address the water problem of over appropriation and help the region to balance its water use. Farmers and ranchers paid $75 per acre-foot of groundwater they pumped, but also were compensated for fallowing parts of their fields, limiting water demand.
In the four years since the subdistrict project began in 2012, the aquifer is recovering. One-third less groundwater water being pumped than before the project, from more than 320,000 acre-feet prior to 2012 to about 200,000 acre-feet. Ten thousand acres that previously were used to cultivate thirsty alfalfa and potato crops were fallow. Stewards of the land continue to improve soil quality and were striving to grow more efficient crops as other ways to help the aquifer.
Central America tests drought-resistant 'miracle' beans
ReliefWeb, Dec 01, 2015
El Salvador
A hybrid light red bean created through traditional cross-breeding grows well despite little moisture and is resistant to bean golden yellow mosaic virus.
This machine can make salty water drinkable — using only the sun’s rays
The Washington Post, May 06, 2015

A group of people from Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed a novel method of purifying brackish, undrinkable water via a solar-powered water desalination system. The water produced by the system is free of contaminants and is potable.
Company says evaporation suppression worked
Wichita Falls Times Record News (Texas), Jan 28, 2015
Wichita Falls, Texas
The evaporation suppression powder used on Arrowhead Lake during the 2014 summer was successful. A report by the Texas Water Development Board said the measure may have reduced normal evaporation by 15 percent.
Wichita Falls officials were evaluating the report and considered it inconclusive. The city spent about $294,000 on the project.
Drought Headlines Archive

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